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His Life New Muslims

Muhammad: The Noblest of the Prophets and Messengers

By Muhammad bin Ibrahim bin `Abdullah Al-Tuwayjiri

His Lineage and Upbringing

He is Muhammad ibin `Abdullah ibn `Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim ibn `Abd Manaf ibn Qusayy ibn Kilab ibn Murrah ibn Ka`b ibn Lu’ay ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr ibn Malik ibn Al-Nadr ibn Kinanah ibn Khuzaymah ibn Mudrikah ibn Ilyas ibn Mudar ibn Nizar ibn Maʿd ibn `Adnan.

Muhammad- The Noblest of the Prophets and Messengers

He lived a life full of great manners, beautiful conduct and pleasant characteristics.

His noble lineage has been preserved until Adam (peace be upon him), and his mother was Aminah bint Wahb.

He (peace be upon him) was born in Makkah in the Year of the Elephant, equivalent to the year 570 CE.

His father `Abdullah died while his mother was still pregnant with him. When he was born, his grandfather `Abdul-Muttalib took care of him, and his mother passed away when he was six years old. When his grandfather died, his uncle Abu Talib took  are of him.

He lived a life full of great manners, beautiful conduct and pleasant characteristics, so much so that his people gave him the nickname of “The Trustworthy.”

Prophethood

At the age of forty, Muhammad (peace be upon him) attained prophethood when the Truth (i.e. the revelation) came to him in the cave of Hira’ whilst he was worshipping, and he (the angel) informed him that he was the Messenger of Allah. He then began calling his people to iman (belief) in Allah and His Messenger, and calling them to worship Allah alone and to stay away from worshipping other than Him.

As a result, he received various types of harm at the hands of his people, but he remained patient until Allah manifested His religion. He then migrated to Madinah where legislative rulings were prescribed, Islam attained honor and the religion was completed.

He (peace be upon him) then died on a Monday in the month of Rabi` Awwal in the year 11 AH, and his age was sixty-three. He joined the Highest Companions (in Paradise) after he conveyed the clear message, strove hard in Allah’s Cause as he ought to have strove, guided his Ummah to every good and warned them from every evil. So may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him.

His Unique Characteristics

From amongst the unique characteristics of the Prophet (peace be upon him) is that he is the seal of the prophets, leader of the messengers and leader of the pious. The message he was sent with was general for the thaqalayn (the jinn and mankind), and Allah sent him as a mercy to the worlds. He was taken on the night journey (Al-Isra’ to Bayt Al-Maqdis (Jerusalem) and from there ascended to the heavens (Al-Mi`raj).

Allah called upon him (in the Qur’an) by his ascription to prophethood and messengership, and he was given concise speech that entailed vast meanings. Finally, Allah bestowed upon him five unique characteristics that were not given to the other prophets.

Jabir ibn `Abdullah (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated:

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “I have been given five things which were not given to anyone else before me: Allah made me victorious by awe (by His frightening my enemies) for a distance of one month’s journey; the earth has been made for me (and for my followers) a place for praying and a thing to perform dry ablution, therefore anyone of my followers can pray wherever the time of a prayer is due; the booty has been made lawful for me, yet it was not lawful for anyone else before me; I have been given the right of intercession (on the Day of Resurrection); and every prophet used to be sent to his nation only, but I have been sent to all mankind.” (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

He (peace be upon him) was also given unique characteristics that his Ummah was not, among which were: permission to continuously fast without break; marrying without giving a dowry; marrying more than four wives at one time; his wives being unlawful to marry after his death; not being allowed to take charity; being able to hear and see what others could not, like seeing Jibril (Gabriel) in his true image that Allah created him upon; and finally, he is not inherited from.

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The article is an excerpt from the author’s book “Summarized Islamic Fiqh In Light of the Qur’an and Sunnah”, translated by Kamil Ahmad & Jawad Beg.

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His Character New Muslims

Prophet Muhammad: The Embodiment of the Role and Features of Believers

By Abdur Raheem Kidwai

The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) devoted himself heart and soul to the mission of Islam and achieved great success notwithstanding stiff opposition, in transforming the polytheistic Arabs into champions of monotheism. He drew upon every conceivable means for articulating the truth of Islam.

Prophet Muhammad: The Embodiment of the Role and Features of Believers

The Prophet was granted the following charter of social justice, which also spells out the role and features of believers.

His concern was so deep felt that he cried over the prospect of the inevitable divine punishment for those Arab unbelievers who refused to embrace Islam. The Qur’an, however, directed him not to grieve so much about the miserable fate of such unbelievers:

Perhaps you will kill yourself with grief because they do not become believers. (Ash-Shu`araa’ 26:3)

The Makkan unbelievers asked him to produce a miracle which they could see with their own eyes. They were told to look around them in that Allah’s distinct signs are scattered everywhere. He was, nonetheless, granted the miracle which we know as the Qur’an. For it embodies the light of Allah’s guidance and mercy.

Prophecies

The Qur’an recounts the prophecies about the Prophet Muhammad’s advent which featured in the earlier Scriptures, especially the Torah and the Gospels. Take this as illustrative:

And remember, Jesus, the son of Mary, said: “O Children of Israel! I am the Messenger of Allah sent to you, confirming the Torah, which came before me, and giving glad tidings of a Messenger to come after me. His name shall be Ahmad.” (As-Saff 61:6)

Even in the face of such clear pronouncements in their own holy Books about the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), the Jews and Christians of the day rejected and opposed him. They did so for their own selfish ends. For the radical message of Islam was set to destroy their vested interests, their degenerate way of life and their clergy that abused religion for pecuniary gain.

Overwhelming Victory

However, Allah promised and sent His help to the Prophet. For example, when the unbelieving Makkans mocked him for being without a son, Allah consoled and comforted him:

To you We have granted Al-Kawthar. Turn to your Lord in prayer and sacrifice. For he who hates you will be cut off (from future hope). (Al-Kawthar 108:1-4)

Allah blessed him with an overwhelming victory over the unbelievers, the Jews and Christians. Millions accepted Islam and country after country was won over to the Caliphs, who succeeded the Prophet, to lead the community of believers. As for the Prophet himself, he devoted more and more of his time to glorifying Allah and seeking Allah’s forgiveness.

As to the exalted rank which he enjoys in Allah’s sight, the following Qur’anic passage is instructive:

Allah and His angels send blessings on the Prophet. O Believers! Send your blessings upon him and salute him with all respect. (Al-Ahzab 33:56)

Allah also conferred another distinction on the Prophet – that of his Ascent and Night Journey to the heavens, which is recorded thus in the Qur’an:

Glory be to Allah Who took His servant (Muhammad) for the night journey from the sacred mosque to the farthest mosque, whose surroundings We have blessed in order that We might show him some of Our signs. (Al-Israa’ 17:1)

Our Role Model

More importantly, on that occasion, he was granted the following charter of social justice, which also spells out the role and features of believers:

Those who are constant in their prayer. And in their wealth there is a recognized right for the beggar and the deprived. (Al-Ma`arij 70:23-25)

And those who respect their trusts and covenants. They stand firm in their testimony. (Al-Ma`arij 70:32-33)

The same note of social justice permeates the Prophet’s sermon at `Arafat which he delivered on the occasion of his farewell pilgrimage.

It captures the essence of the mission which he professed and practiced throughout his illustrious life:

“No Arab is superior to a non-Arab and any non-Arab does not have superiority over an Arab. Piety alone confers honour on man. All men are from Adam and Adam was made of clay.

O people! Your lives, blood and property are sacred for one another … All of you will certainly appear before Allah and He will take you to account. Thus do I warn you. Whoever among you is entrusted with someone’s property shall return the trust to the rightful owner.

O people! Allah has laid down rights for everyone. No one should therefore, leave a will in favour of any of his heirs. Debt is to be repaid. Borrowed things are to be returned. It is not lawful to deprive anyone of what is due to him. Your wives have rights. They owe you obligations. Treat them well. For they are dependent upon you. If you follow the Book of Allah and my practice (Sunnah), which I leave behind with you, you will never go astray.”

This sermon stands out as his strong exhortation for cordial human relationships and a tension-free society.

This sermon stands out as his strong exhortation for cordial human relationships and a tension-free society. His assertions about shunning violence and bloodshed, not usurping others’ belongings and refraining from betraying the trust reposed in one re-echo the Qur’an:

No prophet could (ever) be false to his trust. If any person is so false, He shall, on the Day of Judgment, restore what he misappropriated; then shall every soul receive its due,- whatever it earned,- and none shall be dealt with unjustly. (Aal ‘Imran 3:161)

If a man kills a believer intentionally, his recompense is Hell, to abide therein (Forever): And the wrath and the curse of Allah are upon him, and a dreadful penalty is prepared for him. (An-Nisaa’ 4:93)

He is also seen reminding everyone of the need to discharge their obligations, especially those which they owe to fellow human beings in general and to their family members, friends and neighbors in particular. Man is asked to keep the trust placed with him as a responsible member of the society and as a good citizen.

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The article is an excerpt from Abdur Raheem Kidwai’s book “The Qur’an: Essential Teachings”, published by the Islamic Foundation, 2005/1426 H.

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