Ethics & Values New Muslims

Disagreement and Debate in Islam

We, humans, are different by nature, but how we differ and react to our differences is what matters. What does Islam say about this? How could we make our differences and…

By Khalid Dhorat

To differ and disagree is only natural, but the way we differ is a matter of attitude and discipline.

To differ and disagree is only natural, but the way we differ is a matter of attitude and discipline.

Very often, people philosophize and agonize about the state of the Ummah (Muslim nation). It is true that what happens in other parts of the world affects us directly; we are concerned, we voice our feelings and assist according to our means. However, what we sometimes forget is that whilst we are thinking globally, we fail to act……locally!

We, too, have pressing issues at home. Disagreement and dissension, is capable of breaking up any society – and this is an issue that we need to face squarely!

Unity above Everything

Prophet Musa (Moses, peace be upon him) once became extremely upset with his brother Harun (Aaron, peace be upon him), who was also a Prophet. He grabbed him by his hair and pulled his beard. Musa held Harun responsible for allowing the Bani Isra’il (the Children of Israel)) in following As-Samiri and going back to worshipping the idols, during his absence. Aaron sadly replied:

O son of my mother, do not seize me by my beard or my head. Truly, I feared but you should say that I caused a division among the Bani-Isra’il and did not respect my word. (Ta-Ha 20:94)

This verse shows that Aaron was more concerned with the unity of the Bani Isra’il than he was with their worshipping the golden calf. He was waiting for his brother to come back and calmly resolve this problem, thereby avoiding dissension.

Disagreements and differences between people are natural. All of us are different in one way or another. We come from different backgrounds and upbringings, we speak different languages, we belong to different ethnic backgrounds, and have variegated levels of education.

We may therefore have different perceptions, opinions, and approaches. Allah (Exalted is He) says:

If Allah had so willed, He would have made you a single community, but (His plan is) to test you in what He has given you; so strive as in a race in all virtues. The return of you all is to Allah; it is He that will show you the truth of the matters in which you dispute. (Al-Ma’idah 5:48)

From this ayah (verse) we see that being different is by Allah’s design. Differences among people cannot be and will not be eliminated. Therefore, we have to make our differences and disagreements work to the advantage of the Ummah.

Can we prevent dissension and enmity by learning how to disagree?

To differ and disagree is only natural, but the way we differ is a matter of attitude and discipline.

Types of Disagreement

There are three types of disagreements. The first is normal disagreement, ikhtilaf. It is used to describe a situation in which people genuinely cannot agree on issues. The second disagreement is dialectical in nature, jadal. The aim of this kind of disagreement is ultimately to win an argument. At best, it is fruitless and serves no higher purpose.

The third type and worst type of disagreement is dissension, shiqaq. This is when parties hold beliefs that are mutually exclusive. Each party has no room for the other’s opinion. It is when pride and arrogance subverts the rational mind to the lowest of the low. It may even lead to violence.

We have seen evidence of dissension in our society: family and business squabbles that dissipate the energy and resources of people; institutions of learning that bicker on irrelevant issues; road rage incidents that lead to death amongst neighbours; pamphleteering amongst organizations; malicious slandering etc.

These are some of the symptoms of unacceptable disagreements that we see around us. They lead to disunity. They can be caused by selfishness, pride, arrogance and ignorance; or by blind loyalty to groups, parties or leaders. Allah warns us about these kinds of disagreements and gave us the examples of nations before us who destroyed themselves through dissension. Allah says:

And do not dispute with one another, lest you lose heart and your moral strength desert you… (Al-Anfal 8:46)

Imagine the situation of a group of people who are trapped at the bottom of a deep pit. Either they can argue forever about who can jump high enough to reach the top until they get exhausted and die or they can stand on each other’s shoulders and by mutual co-operation reach the top.

The Sahabah (Companions of the Prophet) differed among themselves on a number of issues, starting with choosing the successor to the Prophet (peace be upon him). They differed on strategy in political matters, on interpretations in fiqhi (jurisprudential) issues. But they continued to have respect, love and reverence for each other. The founders of the different fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) schools, although disagreeing on many issues, even so had great respect for each other.

Can we be the same? Can we disagree and remain united? I believe we can. The first and foremost guarantee of our unity, is setting our objective wholly and sincerely to please Allah. We need to train our hearts to reject pride and jealousy. To remain one community, we need to subordinate our desires to Allah’s desire.

Some of the pitfalls we need to avoid:

Generalizing and stereotyping: ‘This person or that organization is like this’, or ‘they are all the same’.

Doubt: Be careful about your assumptions. ‘Who is behind this?’ ‘Where do they get their money from?’ and so on plant the seed of doubt and mistrust.

Jumping to conclusions: ‘He is the culprit’. Hear the whole story, get information, hear all sides before judging any individual or group.

Speaking about what you do not know: Speak only after thorough investigation. Allah says: ‘Do not pursue that which you have no knowledge of’.

Some aspects we need to emphasize:

1. Make your loyalty to Allah alone, and look for justice and truth.

2. If a discussion gets heated, stop it immediately.

3. Always keep in mind that your brother or sister has the right to his/her opinion, just like you do.

4. It is always better to debate an issue without settling it, than to settle it without debating it.

5. Do not leave an argument carrying a grudge.

6. Conclude with a handshake, smile or a hug.

7. Assure the other side that your disagreement does not change your love and respect for him.

Above all, let us not be from those who have broken the unity of their faith and become sects, each group delighting in what they follow:

Turn your back in repentance to Him, and fear Him: establish regular prayers, and be not you among those who join gods with Allah; those who split up their Religion, and become (mere) Sects, each party rejoicing in that which is with itself! (Ar-Rum 30:31-32)




By Hanif Kruger

BIO for Hanif Kruger

Hanif is the manager at the Assistive Technology Centre of the South African National Council for the Blind with more than 30 years of experience in the assistive technology and IT fields. Hanif’s passion is assistive technology and advocating for key issues affecting people with disabilities and more specifically the blind and vision impaired. He shares his love for Assistive Technologies through sharing information through his work and via social media and relevant events in order to spread the knowledge and awareness around new technologies and the challenges relating to AT for PWDs. A strong believer in the rights of persons with disabilities and the philosophy of “nothing about us without us”, he regularly push for the affordability and accessability of AT and matching the correct assistive technology solutions with a person in order for them to reach their full capacity. Hanif enjoys a good Netflix and Apple TV+ binge but can also be found walking both his guide dogs looking for cookies .

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