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BBC News British Youth Christians Turning To ISLAM

BBC News British Youth Christians Turning To ISLAM

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New Muslims Society

For A Powerful Sound Society: What the Qur’an Teaches

By Dr. Ahmad Al Khalidi

The Divine instructions in Surat Al-Israa’, verses 22-39, prescribe the features of a powerful sound society. A society that is built upon strong sound bonds and ties, ties of belief and fear of Allah, kindness and gratitude to parents, provision and support to relatives, donation and care for the poor and needy, moderation and economy in expenses, care and precaution to orphans, fulfilling engagement and commitment to others.

For A Powerful Sound Society: What the Qur’an Teaches

A sound society is a society built upon strong sound bonds and ties, ties of belief and fear of Allah, kindness and gratitude.

Take not with Allah another deity; or you (O man!) wilt sit in disgrace and destitution. Your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him, and that you be kind to parents. Whether one or both of them attain old age in your life, say not to them a word of contempt, nor repel them, but address them in terms of honour. And, out of kindness, lower to them the wing of humility, and say: ‘My Lord! bestow on them your Mercy even as they cherished me in childhood’. Your Lord knows best what is in your hearts: If you do deeds of righteousness, verily He is Most Forgiving to those who turn to Him again and again (in true penitence). And give the relative his right, and (also) the poor and the traveler, and do not spend wastefully.…… (Al-Israa’ 17:22-26)

At the same time, this society is secured with its protective system that prohibits extravagance, miserliness, killing innocent souls, immorality, conceit, arrogance, lying at others and other ill manners.

Kill not your children for fear of want: We shall provide sustenance for them as well as for you. Verily the killing of them is a great sin. Nor come nigh to adultery: for it is a shameful (deed) and an evil, opening the road (to other evils). Nor kill the soul- which Allah has made sacred – except for just cause. And if anyone is slain wrongfully, we have given his heir authority: but let him not exceed bounds in the matter of taking life; for he is helped (by the Law). (Al-Israa’ 17:22-26)

Women in Islam

Furthermore, the speech dialogue of Surat An-Nur illustrates the status of woman in the Muslim society; where she enjoys peace and sanctity more than woman does in any other society. She is surrounded with material and spiritual care. She wears her veil that protects her from insolent eyes; at the same time the Qur’anic regulation commands men to lower their gaze when they see her or treat her. Moreover, Divine precautions are taken for her benefit. She is forbidden to show her beauty or adornment to prohibited people or to go into unnecessary mixing with the other sex.

(It is) no sin for you to enter uninhabited houses wherein is comfort for you. Allah knows what you proclaim and what you hide. Tell the believing men to lower their gaze and be modest. That is purer for them. Lo! Allah is aware of what they do. And tell the believing women to lower their gaze and be modest, and to display of their adornment only that which is apparent, and to draw their veils over their bosoms, and not to reveal their adornment save to their own husbands or fathers or husbands’ fathers, or their sons or their husbands’ sons, or their brothers or their brothers’ sons or sisters’ sons, or their women, or their slaves, or male attendants who lack vigor, or children who know naught of women’s nakedness. And let them not stamp their feet so as to reveal what they hide of their adornment. And turn unto Allah together, O believers, in order that you may succeed. (An-Nur 24:30-31)

Not only this, she has her right in inheritance from her relatives:

There is a share for men and a share for women from what is left by parents and those nearest related, whether the property is small or large, an obligatory share. (An-Nissa’ 4:7)

Marriage

What’s more, the Qu’ranic teachings enjoin the Muslim community to support both unmarried men and women financially in case they are in need of support to accomplish their marriage with the aim of keeping the Muslim society pure of vice and corruption.

So, poverty should not be an obstacle in front of  those who are qualified and have the desire to get married:

Marry those among you who are single, or the virtuous ones among yourselves, male or female: if they are in poverty, Allah will give them means out of His grace: for Allah encompasses all, and he knows all things. (An-Nur 24:32)

Stansbery in Sheha (1997:6) says that “The Arab-Islamic society is wholesome and healthy. This society must continue to protect its traditions that restrict its both males and females to a certain and reasonable degree.” Stansbery went on criticizing the false freedom given to young women in the west and how such freedom led to loss and destruction of lots of young women.

Healthy Relations

Likewise, the Qur’anic guidance through Surat Al-Hujurat elucidates that the Muslim society has its own preventive system that secures it from offensive and harmful behavior that may tear the strong bonds of social relations between relatives, friends, colleagues, or neighbors. This system prohibits believing the news coming from a wicked person or an unknown source. Nobody is judged by suspicion nor the safety or honour of people are exposed to harm.

O you who believe! If a wicked person comes to you with any news, ascertain the truth, lest you harm people unwittingly, and afterwards become full of repentance for what ye have done. (Al-Hujurat 49:6)

It is a society that has its own procedure in ascertaining words and actions and making sure of their source before  judging on people. It is a world of clean feeling, ensured sanctity and protected honour in presence and absence.

This system takes precaution measures to guard people from insult, disgrace, or calling others with their offensive nicknames. It is a society that prohibits  spying at or backbiting innocent people.

O you who believe! Let not a folk deride a folk who may be better than they (are), not let women (deride) women who may be better than they are; neither defame one another, nor insult one another by nicknames. Bad is the name of lewdness after faith. And whoso turns not in repentance, such are evil-doers.

O you who believe! Shun much suspicion; for lo! some suspicion is a crime. And spy not, neither backbite one another. Would one of you love to eat the flesh of his dead brother? You abhor that (so abhor the other)! And keep your duty (to Allah). Lo! Allah is Relenting, Merciful. (Al Hujurat 49:11-12)

Besides, this society has its own capability to live and continue through its own security and maintenance system. It is actually a real ideal world.

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Dr. Ahmad Muhammad Al khalidi is Researcher and translator, E L teacher and lecturer, an old member in the  Islam Presentation Committee (IPC), Kuwait.

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Ethics & Values New Muslims

The Real Hijab and Its Real Purpose

Why do Muslim women wear the hijab? How should it look like? Why was the hijab prescribed for women? Do we, Muslim women, nowadays, wear the real hijab?

Allah says in the Qur’an:

And tell the believing women to reduce (some) of their vision and guard their private parts and not expose their adornment except that which (necessarily) appears thereof and to wrap (a portion of) their head covers over their chests and not expose their adornment except to their husbands, their fathers, their husbands’ fathers, their sons, their husbands’ sons, their brothers, their brothers’ sons, their sisters’ sons, their women, that which their right hands possess, or those male attendants having no physical desire, or children who are not yet aware of the private aspects of women. And let them not stamp their feet to make known what they conceal of their adornment. And turn to Allah in repentance, all of you, O believers, that you might succeed. (An-Nur 24:31)

Nouman Ali Khan speaks about that in the video below…

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Source: Da`wah Islam Channel 

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Ethics & Values New Muslims

Muslim Women and Morality: The Qur’anic Code

By Dr. Ahmad Al Khalidi

Women and Morality

Al Baz (2007) points out that Islam adopts the principle of protection rather than punishment; so it is not against the inborn instinct. However, Islam regulates the inborn instinct and secures for it a pure atmosphere free from deviant excitement.

Muslim Women and Morality: The Qur’anic Code

Islam aims at building a pure society free from continuous lust agitation.

The Islamic educational method in this case is to narrow down the chance of  temptation; to obstruct the factors of  attraction and to impede the reasons of enticement.

That is to say Islam aims at building a pure society free from continuous lust agitation, so one of the Islamic methods of building up a clean society is to ban such aggravation keeping the deep innate motivation between the two sexes at its natural sound state without factitious excitement.

Ali (1934:1012) added, “the need for modesty is the same in both men and women. But on the account of the differentiation manner of the sexes in nature, temperaments and social life, a greater amount of privacy is required for women than for men, especially in the matter of dress and the uncovering of the bosom.”

And say to the believing women that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty; that they should not display their beauty and ornaments except what (must ordinarily) appear thereof; that they should draw their veils over their bosoms and not display their beauty except to their husbands, their fathers, their husband’s fathers, their sons, their husbands´ sons, their brothers or their brothers’ sons, or their sisters’ sons, or their women, or the slaves whom their right hands possess, or male servants free of physical needs, or small children who have no sense of the shame of sex; and that they should not strike their feet in order to draw attention to their hidden ornaments. And O you Believers! turn you all together towards Allah, that you may attain Bliss. (An-Nur 24:31)

Allah (Exalted be He) addresses His Messenger Mohammad (peace be upon him) through this Qur’anic didactic dialogue to guide the believing Muslim woman to regard the following moral etiquette:

– to lower her gaze, to keep her chastity, to draw her veil on her open neck, bosom and (face); and not to display her beauty and ornaments except to the following people:

a- her husband  b- her father  c- her father in law d -her sons  e-her sons in law f- her brothers g- her nephews h- her women -her slaves ( at time of slavery )  j- her male- servants who are free of their physical needs  k- children who have no sense of  the shame of sex, and not to strike her feet with the aim of drawing the attention to her hidden ornaments. At length, Allah, directly, addresses the believers to repent and turn to Allah so that they may attain success.

Displaying their Beauty & Ornaments

Famous western women warn young women against being involved in the illusive world of light and false fame that lead eventually to personal loss and ruin; at the same time they advise them to be chaste and lead a happy familial life. For instance, to cite Siba`i in `Abd Alqader, (2008:16) who narrates what a well-known old American actress (M.M.) says to warn young women against  joining the world of cinema,

beware all those who deceive you with lights; I prefer home and family life to everything. Woman’s real happiness is in the pure honorable family life; not only this, family life is the symbol of woman’s happiness. All people did wrong me. Working in cinema makes of woman a trifle, cheap article whatever she achieves of glory and false fame. I advise young women not to work in cinema and acting. Their end will be as mine. (suicide)

Young Muslims

Supporting poor young Muslims for getting married is a social obligation. In view of that, Allah enjoins the Muslim community to support both unmarried men and women financially in case they are in need of money to accomplish their marriage with the aim of keeping the Muslim community pure of vice and corruption.

So, poverty should not be an obstacle in front of  those who are qualified and have the desire to get married.

And marry those among you who are single and the pious of your male slaves and female slaves. If they be poor Allah will enrich them out of His bounty. And Allah is All-Sufficient for his creatures’ needs, All-Knowing. (An-Nur 24:32)

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Dr. Ahmad Muhammad Al khalidi is Researcher and translator, E L teacher and lecturer, an old member in the presentation to Islam committee.

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Ethics & Values New Muslims

Islam and Social Diseases: For a Healthy Muslim Society

By Dr. Ahmad Al Khalidi

This topic highlights the social diseases that cause societal problems among people of the same community.

Psycho-social 

Islam and Social Diseases: For a Healthy Muslim Society

Such illnesses are so dangerous that they can corrupt the life of any social establishment.

Such illnesses are so dangerous that they can weaken the strong relationship between people and corrupt the life of any social establishment.

That is why Allah (Exalted be He) prohibits offensive suspicion, spying as well as backbiting and portrays the backbiter in a disgusting image where he sits by his dead brother and snaps his flesh.

O you who believe! Avoid suspicion as much (as possible): for suspicion in some cases is a sin: And spy not on each other behind their backs. Would any of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother? Nay, ye would abhor it…But fear Allah: For Allah is Oft-Returning, Most Merciful. (Al-Hujurat 49:12)

Allah addresses believers and calls them to avoid the bad manners mentioned in the above Qur’anic verse. Let us consider each of these social illnesses one by one, starting with suspicion:

Suspicion

First of all, Al Ashqar, (1985) points out that this verse enjoins believers not to suspect innocent people; evil suspicion of good people is considered sinful; but they can suspect wicked people who are known of their wickedness. However, believers should not speak out of such suspicion, otherwise they would be sinful.

There is another kind of harmful suspicion which its danger mainly refers to the person himself who may keep saying to himself, “Allah will not forgive me”. Being desperate of Allah’s mercy and His forgiveness may lead him to follow the footsteps of the Satan which eventually may lead him to Hell.

However, the Prophet (peace be upon him) says: “You should have good hope with Allah till your death-bed.” (Muslim) Besides, Allah says in a hadith Qudsi: “I treat my servant the way he feels about me.”

Moreover, Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: “The Messenger of Allah said, “Allah the Exalted says: ‘I am as my slave expects me to be’”. (Muslim)

Imam Abu Bakr Al-Jassas divided suspicion into four categories as described in his book Ahkamul-Qur’an. These four categories are: 1- Unlawful (haram), 2- Mandatory (wajib), 3- Permissible (mustahab), and Acceptable (mubah).

The example of unlawful suspicion is to keep saying to himself that Allah will definitely punish or torture him and lose total hope in the forgiveness and mercy of Allah; while the example of permissible suspicion is to keep good feelings about every Muslim.

It is, however, permissible to use precautions in daily dealings without considering someone a thief or a traitor without a just cause. The example of mandatory suspicion is that if, for example, you do not know the direction of Qiblah and there is nobody to guide you, it is permissible to use your best judgment. And the example of acceptable suspicion is that if one is not sure of completing three or four rak’aats in prayer, it is acceptable to use the most prevalent assumption in one’s mind.

Spying           

Spying is also one of the worst social manners. It is not allowed and it is shameful to snoop at people’s own life or private works or tasks and disclose their secrets. However, to quote Sahih International website, ”if there is a possibility of another party harming you or harming another Muslim, then such spying is allowed”

Backbiting

Let us now think about backbiting. It is narrated that Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said, “Backbiting is talking about somebody which if he heard, would grieve him.” (Muslim & At-Tirmidhi)

Hence, to cite Sahih International.com, “it is not allowed to talk about somebody in his absence, even if what was narrated was true. If it was not true, then it would be a bigger sin and it is called Buhtan”

Moreover, backbiting violates the rights of Allah and the rights of people simultaneously. Hence, it is necessary to ask for forgiveness from the victim first, since Allah will not forgive until the victim forgives. If the victim has died or is untraceable  or, if something worse may happen if the victim is asked for forgiveness, then ransom has to be done.

Anas (May Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah said, “The ransom for backbiting is to pray to Allah for forgiveness by saying, “O Allah! Forgive my sins and his too.”

Al Sa`di (1995) sees that the person who injured his brother with backbiting should repent to Allah (Exalted be He), apologize to his brother, ask Allah forgiveness for him and praise his brother instead of dispraising him.

To lead an honorable life, young Muslims should enjoy good dealings with others and avoid the above mentioned illnesses that may distort the nice relations with relatives, friends, colleagues or others.

Not only this, such bad traits may cause Allah’s anger; hence the sinful should haste to repent and ask forgiveness from Allah and from the victim, or to do the ransom. In short, the ideal Muslim society indisposes offensive suspicion, spying and backbiting.

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Dr. Ahmad Muhammad Al khalidi is Researcher and translator, E L teacher and lecturer, an old member in the presentation to Islam committee.

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Major Sins New Muslims

What Islam Says About Adultery

Adultery is against sound natural disposition, regardless of religion. This crime is looked upon in any society guided by morals and virtues. Islam regards adultery one of the major sins and sources of evil—punishable with death. Prohibiting such a crime is intended to safeguard society against moral decay and other ills.

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Family New Muslims

Between Belief and Manners in Islam

By Dr. Ahmad Al Khalidi

Allah (Exalted be He) guides Muslims to the best of manners to purify them and keep them away from social and psychological complexities. Allah enjoins Muslims not to enter other people’s houses without their permission and welcoming, and if it is said to them go back; they should go back as it is purer for them. Men should lower their gaze and guard their chastity; as it is better for them, and they should not draw near any apparent or hidden vice. Muslim women should also lower their gaze and keep their chastity and keep themselves from prohibited men and women.

Between Belief and Manners in Islam

Allah guides Muslims to the best of manners to purify them and keep them away from social and psychological complexities.

Privacy of Homes

Respecting privacy of homes is a moral and legal conduct. Allah made home a dwelling for family life and comfort, not a common place for anybody to enter at any time; so the Qur’an enjoins Muslims not to enter other people’s homes without taking permission and agreement, and if it is said to them go back; they should go back as it is purer for them.

O ye who believe! enter not houses other than your own, until ye have asked permission and saluted those in them.

And if you do not find any one therein, do not enter them until permission has been given you. And if it is said to you” Go back,  then go back: it is purer for you. And Allah is knowing of what you do. (An-Nur 24:27-28)

However, if the houses are not inhabited such as public houses and one has interest therein, he can enter without permission. Allah knows  what you display and what you conceal.

There is no sin on you that you enter (without taking permission) houses uninhabited (not possessed by anybody), (when) you have  any interest in them. And Allah has knowledge of what you reveal and what you conceal. (An-Nur 24:29)

The Believing Man

Chastity of believing man is a part of ideal manners. Lowering the gaze on the part of men is considered a type of sublime good manners that decreases the chance of enticement and fascination. This manner makes the  society pure and protects its sanctity and dignity.

On the authority of Ibn Mas`ud that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“O young men, whoever among you can afford it, let him get married, for it is more effective in lowering the gaze and guarding one’s chastity. And whoever cannot afford it should fast, for it will be a shield for him. (Al-Bukhaari and Muslim)

Six tips are suggested by productive Muslim.com to help young Muslims to lower their gaze: “1- Find good friends. 2- Carry a book. 3- Fight the second gaze. 4- Get married.5- Remember Allah and  6- Ask Allah (SWT) for help”.

Tell the believing men to lower their gaze (from looking at forbidden things), and protect their private parts (from illegal sexual acts). That is purer for them. Verily, Allah is well-acquainted with what they do.

`Abdul Rahman, Jamal (2001:110) On the authority of Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) said,

I was riding behind the Prophet from Muzdalifah to Mina when a Bedwan was going side by side the Prophet with his beautiful daughter riding behind him. He said “I was looking at her, then the Prophet looked at me and turned my face away from her face, then I looked again and he turned my face until I did that for the third time without ending while the Prophet was saying “Talbiyah’ until he threw the stone of `Aqabah.” And on the authority of Ibn Khuzaimeh that the Prophet said to him “My brother’s son this is a day on which he who lowers his gaze, keeps his special parts and his tongue will be forgiven.

The Believing Woman

Chastity of believing woman honors her. Allah creates Man and knows what is harmful and what is useful for him; that’s why, He orders believing woman to be aware of her chastity and keep herself from prohibited men and women and forbids her from displaying her beauty and ornaments to prohibited people.

Allah wills the Muslim society to be free from immoral relation between man and woman. Lots of women suffer a lot in societies that ignore such divine guidance and moral etiquette. To cite Rahil Brightehard, (Bayan magazine)  who declared, in a forum held in London under the name of “The reality of woman in the west” which points out the statistics that show the dangers of coeducation and mixing males and females. She mentioned these results:

1-The percentage of pregnant adolescents at mixed British schools is 75%.

2- The  percentage of pregnant adolescents at non mixed British schools is 5%.

3- The percentage of pregnant adolescents at non mixed Islamic schools is zero %.”

These statistics also highlight the positive results of the Islamic education at school as well as paternal care and ethical guidance at home.

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Dr. Ahmad Muhammad Al khalidi is Researcher and translator, E L teacher and lecturer, an old member in Islam Presentation Committee (IPC), Kuwait.

 

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Acts of Worship New Muslims

Women’s Prayer in Mosques: Allowed or Not? (Part 2)

By Dr. Salih Al-Fawzan

Our religion is a perfect one that comprehensively covers our welfare and interests in this world and in the Hereafter, Islam came with good to all Muslims, whether male or female as Allah says:

Whosoever does right, whether male or female, and is a believer, him verily we shall quicken with good life, and We shall pay them a recompense in proportion to the best of what they used to do. (An-Nahl 16:97)

Islam takes an interest in women, conferring honor and respect upon them as long as they abide by its rulings and adorn themselves with its virtues.

Concerning going to mosques, does Islam allow women to attend the mosques to witness congregational prayer and assemblies for remembering God? What do the Qur’an and Sunnah say about that? (Read Part 1)

Permissible

Women’s Prayer in Mosques: Allowed or Not? Part 2

When a woman adheres to the high moral standards of Islam it becomes permissible for her then to go to the mosque.

When a woman adheres to the high moral standards of Islam, such as bashfulness, covering herself, keeping away from attractive adornment and perfume (when going out) and keeping away from mingling with men, it becomes permissible for her then to go to the mosque for prayer and attend gatherings for the remembrance of Allah. However, it is better for her to stay at home, because the Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“ … Yet their houses are better for them (to perform prayer therein).” (ِAhmad and Abu Dawud)

Moreover, scholars unanimously agree that it is better for women to perform prayer in their houses than in the mosque, to keep away from any satanic seduction, and for purpose of safety and for uprooting any source of evil.

Prohibited

If a woman does not adhere to the high moral standards of Islam and does not avoid whatever the Messenger (peace be upon him) forbids of adornment and perfume when going out, then it is prohibited for her to go to the mosque, and she must be prevented from going out by her guardian or those in authority. It is stated on the authority of `A’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) that she said:

“Had Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) witnessed what the women were doing, he would have forbidden them from going to the mosque as the women of the Children of Israel had been forbidden.” (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

When a woman goes to the mosque, both the benefit gained behind this (for her and for the whole community) and the avoiding of any cause of evil are to be taken into account (by the Lawgiver). If the cause of evil is greater than the benefit gained, a woman, in this case, must be prevented from going to the mosque.

If a woman is asked to observe these high moral standards, when going out to the mosque, then it is more worthy for her, to be cautious and to keep away from any cause of temptation when going anywhere other than the mosque.

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The article is an excerpt from the author’s book “A Summary of Islamic Jurisprudence”.

Dr. Salih Al-Fawzan is a Professor of Islamic Jurisprudence, Member of the Board of Senior Ulema & Member of the Permanent Committee for Fatwa and Research.

 

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Acts of Worship New Muslims

Women’s Prayer in Mosques: Allowed or Not?

By Dr. Salih Al-Fawzan 

Our religion is a perfect one that comprehensively covers our welfare and interests in this world and in the Hereafter, Islam came with good to all Muslims, whether male or female as Allah says:

Women’s Prayer in Mosques

One of the things by which Islam honors woman is allowing her to attend the mosques.

Whosoever does right, whether male or female, and is a believer, him verily we shall quicken with good life, and We shall pay them a recompense in proportion to the best of what they used to do. (An-Nahl 16:97)

Islam takes an interest in women, conferring honor and respect upon them as long as they abide by its rulings and adorn themselves with its virtues.

Allowed

One of the things by which Islam honors woman is allowing her to attend the mosques to witness the congregational prayers and the assemblies for remembering Allah in order to win reward. However, at the same time the woman must do that with due decency and precautions that keep her away from any satanic seduction and preserve her dignity as well.

With Men’s Permission!

It is detestable to prevent women from going to the mosque if they ask permission. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“Do not prevent the female servants of Allah (women) from (going to) the mosques of Allah, but they should go while they are not perfumed.” (Ahmad and Abu Dawud)

This is because performing the prescribed prayers in congregation has a great reward for both men and women: moreover, walking to the mosque has a great reward.

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“If your women ask permission to go to the mosque at night, allow them.” (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

Why?

The wisdom behind asking their husbands’ permission is that it is among the rights of men upon their women (wives) to stay at home. Thus, going to the mosque, in this case, is only permissible, and they art not to abandon what is obligatory for the sake of what is permissible. When the husband gives permission to his wife to go to the mosque, he then gives up his right (upon his wife to stay at home).

The Prophet said:

“ … yet their houses (women’s) are better for them (to perform prayer therein).” (Ahmad and Abu Dawud)

The Prophet (peace be upon him) means that it is better for women to perform prayer in their houses to avoid any satanic temptation. The Prophet also said:

“… But they should go while they are not perfumed”

On this Condition

This means that women are allowed to go to the mosque (to perform prayer) on the condition that they should not be perfumed, lest they might tempt men with their perfume, thus diverting men’s eyes to them. The intended meaning here is that perfume is something that tempts men towards women. Joined to perfume (in prohibition) is what resembles it (with regard to temptation) like wearing attracting clothes, jewels and adornments.

Thereupon, if a woman perfumes herself or puts on attractive clothes, then she is prohibited to go to the mosque and must be forbidden from going out of her home. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:

“Whoever woman perfumes herself should not join us in the `Isha’ (Night) Prayer.” (Muslim)

Besides, if a woman went out to the mosque (for prayer), she should keep away from crowded gatherings of men, Imam Ibn Al-Qayyim (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

Thus, those in authority must forbid mingling between men and women in marketplaces and  gathering of men. The responsibility for this is upon those in authority since mingling between men and women brings about a great affliction. This is according to the hadith in which the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, ‘After me I have not left any affliction more harmful to men than women.’” (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

Ibn Al-Qayyim added:

“Thus, those in authority must forbid women from going out adorned and beautified (in a seducing way). They must also forbid women from talking to men in streets and forbid men as well from doing the same.”

                                                                                                                                                                      To be continued

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The article is an excerpt from the author’s book “A Summary of Islamic Jurisprudence”.

 

Dr. Salih Al-Fawzan is a Professor of Islamic Jurisprudence, Member of the Board of Senior Ulema & Member of the Permanent Committee for Fatwa and Research.

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Acts of Worship New Muslims

Tarawih Prayer: Its Meaning, Rulings and Manners

By Dr. Salih Al-Fawzan 

The Tarawih Prayer (Nightly Supererogatory Prayer during the month of Ramadan) is among what Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) has ordained for Muslims in Ramadan, and it is a stressed act of the Sunnah.

Trawih Prayer

It is more desirable to perform the Tarawih Prayer in congregation in the mosqueو

It is called ‘tarawih’ which means in Arabic ‘intervals of relaxation’, because Muslims used to take an interval of relaxation after every four rak`ahs  of the Tarawih Prayer as they used to prolong the prayer.

It is more desirable to perform the Tarawih Prayer in congregation in the mosque, as the Prophet (peace be upon him) led his Companions in performing the Tarawih Prayer for some nights then he stopped for fear that it might become a burden on Muslims.

`A’ishah  (may Allah be pleased with her) narrated:

“One night, Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) performed prayer in the mosque and some people followed him. The next night he also performed prayer and too many people gathered. On the third or the fourth night, more people gathered, but Allah’s Messenger did not come out to them. In the morning he said, ‘I saw what you were doing and nothing but the fear that it (i.e. the  prayer) might be enjoined on you, stopped me from comil1g to you.’” (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

In the narration of Al-Bukhari the words “… and that happened in the month of Ramadan” were added. It is well-known that the Companions performed the Tarawih Prayer after the death of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and the Muslim nation has accepted and followed this practice.

The Prophet (peace be upon him) says:

“Whoever stands (performing prayer) with the imam until he finishes prayer, (the reward for) performing prayer all the night will be recorded for him.” (Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa’I, and Ibn Majah)

The Prophet (peace be upon him) also says:

“Whoever performs prayer during the nights of Ramadan faithfully out of sincere faith and hoping for Divine reward (not for showing off), all his past sins will be forgiven.” (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

Thus, performing the Tarawih Prayer is stated (stressed) act of the Sunnah that a Muslim should not leave.”

How Many Rak`ahs?

Concerning the number of rak`ahs (units of prayer) performed in this prayer, nothing definite is narrated about the Prophet (peace be upon him) and hence Muslims are free to choose. Sheikh Al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah said:

“A Muslim can perform twenty rak`ahs (in the Tarawih Prayer) according to the famous Hanbali and Shafi`i schools, thirty six rak`ahs with regard to the Maliki School, eleven rak`ahs  or thirteen. Thus, all is good and a Muslim can perform more or less rak`ahs according to the (long or short) time of his standing reciting the Qur’an.”

When `Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) gathered Muslims to perform the Tarawih Prayer in congregation behind Ubay Ibn Ka`b, the later performed twenty rak`ahs. Some of the Companion used to perform more rak`ahs and other Companions performed less. So, there is no definite text related about the Prophet (peace be upon hgim) determining certain number of rak`ahs to be performed in the Tarawih Prayer.

Tranquility

Many imams of mosques perform the Tarawih Prayer without paying attention or feeling tranquil while bowing or prostrating. Feeling tranquil is an integral part of prayer and a Muslim must pay attention while standing before Allah (Exalted be He) and learn from the words of Allah (the Qur’an) while they are being recited.

Of course, a Muslim cannot feel this when performing prayer with detestable haste. It is more befitting to perform less rak`ahs in a state of tranquility and reciting the Qur’an for a long time than to perform twenty rak`ahs with detestable haste. This is because the essence of prayer is to turn one’s heart to Allah.

Verily, a few rak`ahs (with tranquility and reflection) can outweigh so many ones. Also, it is better to recite the Qur’an with measured recitation than reciting it with haste. It is allowable to be quick in reciting the Qur’an provided that no letter is neglected since it is prohibited to neglect a letter for the sake of quick recitation.

Pondering the Qur’an

However, it is good for an imam (in congregational prayer) to recite the Qur’an in a way that benefits those performing prayer behind him. Allah dispraises those who recite the Qur’an without understanding its meaning as Allah reveals:

And among them are unlettered ones who do not know the Scripture except in wishful thinking, but they are only assuming. (Al–Baqarah 2:78)

The verse refers to those people who recite (the Book) without understanding its meaning. Allah has revealed the Qur’an for Muslims to understand its meaning and carry out its rulings, not only to recite it.

Some imams of mosques do not perform the Tarawih Prayer as it should be performed, for they recite the Qur’an so hastily that they violate the sound reciting of the Qur’an.

Moreover, they do not feel tranquil while standing, bowing, or prostrating though feeling tranquil is an integral part of prayer.

Furthermore, they may perform only a few rak`ahs in (units of prayer). Thai is, those imams combine many detestable acts which are performing only a few rak`ahs, shortening the the time of prayer, and reciting the Qur’an in a bad way.

Thus, they perform worship heedlessly. They must fear Allah, establish their prayer well and not deprive themselves and those (performing prayer) behind them from performing the Tarawih Prayer according to the legal way.

We invoke Allah to guide all Muslims to success.

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The article is an excerpt from the author’s book “A Summary of Islamic Jurisprudence”.

 

Dr. Salih Al-Fawzan is a Professor of Islamic Jurisprudence, Member of the Board of Senior Ulema & Member of the Permanent Committee for Fatwa and Research.

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